Hormones, Brain and Behavior Online
Building on well-established mechanisms that produce the primary female mating behavior, lordosis, research is extending into mechanisms for sexual arousal. Genes and neurochemcal pathways supporting sexual arousal are reviewed, and four neurochemical/biophysical routes by which generalized arousal could influence sexual arousal are charted.
Encyclopedia of Neuroscience
The dissection of the molecular mechanisms of associative learning in Limax, particularly higher-order conditioning, promises to shed light on the network and cellular properties of learning and memory storage in both mammals and mollusks. This has already started with the identification of two gene products involved in Limax learning that have hom...
Encyclopedia of Neuroscience
The amphetamines are powerful central nervous system psychostimulants which readily enter the brain to alter dopamine neurotransmission. These drugs enhance dopamine neurotransmission by disrupting vesicular storage of the transmitter and by promoting the release of dopamine through a nonexocytotic, dopamine transporter-dependent process. Enhanced ...
Self-injuring behavior (SIB) is a life-threatening behavior exhibited by many species, including humans, and has no known cause and no agreed upon treatment. The role of the stress axis in the maintenance of this mysterious behavior was examined in subjects with life-long SIB. Over a 6-year period, 40 hr of direct observations of behavior and the e...
Abstract Only a limited number of studies is available addressing chemosensory stimulation during sleep. Recent work indicates that stimulation with a nasal irritant produces an increase in arousal frequency in non-REM sleep, whereas a selective olfactory stimulant does not. The present study focused on arousal reactions in REM sleep. Five young he...
Abstract The respiratory behavior during affective states is not completely understood. We studied breathing pattern responses to picture series in 37 participants. We also measured end-tidal pCO 2 (EtCO 2) to determine if ventilation is in balance with metabolic demands and spontaneous eye-blinking to investigate the link between respiration and a...
Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development, Three-Volume Set
Habituation and novelty paradigms have been used for more than 50 years to study perceptual and mnemonic processes in the human infant. In the first part of this article we provide a brief history and description of the different types of habituation and novelty procedures, critique the major theories and models of infant habituation and novelty pr...
This paper analyzes Tibor Scitovsky's attempt to solve the paradox of consumers' dissatisfaction in welfare societies. My research concentrate on Scitovsky's ground-breaking book, The Joyless Economy (1992a) which has been the first book to apply theories of neuropsychology to questions of consumer behavior in clear, non-technical language. W...
Encyclopedia of Ecology, Five-Volume Set
Dormancy or torpor is a widely recognized behavioral and physiological state of both animals and plants that generally indicates inactivity and reduced metabolic rate. It can involve very different physiological states in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, including temperature, water, or food. It can last