A large number of zoo-anthroponoses is known, in the natural cycle of which are involved rodents or lagomorphs. This is mainly related to the numerical importance of rodents, their ecological plasticity, their relationships with man. Thus, it is important, for the epidemiologist, to differentiate synanthropic rodents living in close contact with man and often spread by him, which are at the origine of frequently urban diseases, from wild rodents usually having only few contacts with man in rural areas only. The events allowing the passage of an infectious agent from rodent to man appear varied, as are epidemiological schemes in which these animals can play different roles: they can act, alone or together with other animals, as natural reservoirs, or, on the contrary, they are only occasionally infected, and the transmission can occur by direct contact, by bite, through the environment, or with the help of an arthropod vector. It is particularly interesting to follow the evolution of some of these epidemiological systems, in order to evaluate the impact of human activities, such as deforestations, new technics for agriculture and cattle breeding, urbanization, increasing transportation, development of leisure activities. In order to reduce this infectious risk, we should look for the means of a correct balance between rodent and human populations, by joining the control of epidemiologically dangerous species, modification of some of our behaviours, a relevant health information, together with the care of the protection of natural ecosystems.