BackgroundThe current study aimed to compare the efficacy of transition zone PSA density (TZPSAD) with traditional PSA and PSA density (PSAD), for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in Taiwanese males.MethodsMen with PSA between 4.0 and 20.0 ng/ml who underwent a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy between the studied period were retrospectively identified. The demographic data, PSAD and TZPSAD were calculated in all patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the accuracy of a positive PCa diagnosis.ResultsThe area under the ROC (AUC) was 0.615, 0.748 and 0.746 for PSA, PSAD and TZPSAD, respectively. The best cut-off of value for TZPSAD in predicting PCa in men with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml was 0.367 ng/ml/ml with a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 77.5%. In men with a PSA of 10.1–20.0 ng/ml, the best cut-off value was 0.454 ng/ml, with a sensitivity of 74.8% and specificity of 70.9%.ConclusionThe use of TZPSAD can improve the efficiency and specificity of PSA for the diagnosis of PCa in Taiwanese men with PSA 4.0–20.0 ng/ml. TZPSAD efficiency was similar to PSAD but TZPSAD had better cancer specificity.