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Zearalenone (ZEN) in Livestock and Poultry: Dose, Toxicokinetics, Toxicity and Estrogenicity

Authors
  • Liu, Jundi
  • Applegate, Todd
Type
Published Article
Journal
Toxins
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jun 07, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
6
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/toxins12060377
PMID: 32517357
PMCID: PMC7354539
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

One of the concerns when using grain ingredients in feed formulation for livestock and poultry diets is mycotoxin contamination. Aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin, trichothecene (deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins that have been frequently reported in animal feed. ZEN, which has raised additional concern due to its estrogenic response in animals, is mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum ( F. graminearum ), F. culmorum , F. cerealis , F. equiseti , F. crookwellense and F. semitectums , and often co-occurs with deoxynivalenol in grains. The commonly elaborated derivatives of ZEN are α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalanone, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol. Other modified and masked forms of ZEN (including the extractable conjugated and non-extractable bound derivatives of ZEN) have also been quantified. In this review, common dose of ZEN in animal feed was summarized. The absorption rate, distribution (“carry-over”), major metabolites, toxicity and estrogenicity of ZEN related to poultry, swine and ruminants are discussed.

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