X-irradiation of the head of adult mice leads to DNA repair synthesis (unscheduled DNA synthesis, UDS) in non-proliferating cells of the brain as shown autoradiographically after injection of 3H-thymidine and subsequent irradiation. The extent of UDS induced by one and the same X-ray dose varies between different cell types and also between different brain areas. Within the range of X-ray doses studied (2 to 100 Gy) a linear dose effect relationship was observed. No evidence of a saturation effect was found. The slopes of the regression lines for the dose effect relationship differ considerably for the different cell types. Two interesting correlations were found, if the present results were compared with other data in the literature: (i) There seems to be a correlation between the extent of UDS and radiosensitivity of the different cell types, the cells with low DNA repair synthetic rates being more radiosensitive. (ii) The extent of UDS of the different cell types correlates well with the extent of protein synthesis of the corresponding cell types. Apart from radiation induced UDS, spontaneous UDS was found to occur in sham-irradiated animals. The extent of spontaneous UDS also differs considerably between different cell types as well as between different brain areas. The increase of spontaneous UDS with increasing duration of immobilization of the animals during sham irradiation suggests a relationship between spontaneous UDS and stress.