We report the first X-linked creatine-deficiency syndrome caused by a defective creatine transporter. The male index patient presented with developmental delay and hypotonia. Proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy of his brain revealed absence of the creatine signal. However, creatine in urine and plasma was increased, and guanidinoacetate levels were normal. In three female relatives of the index patient, mild biochemical abnormalities and learning disabilities were present, to various extents. Fibroblasts from the index patient contained a hemizygous nonsense mutation in the gene SLC6A8 and were defective in creatine uptake. The three female relatives were heterozygous for this mutation in SLC6A8, which has been mapped to Xq28.