Earthworms are important organisms in soil communities and are known for sustaining the life of the soil. They are used as a model organism in environmental risk assessment of chemicals and soil toxicology. Soil provides physical and nutritive support to agriculture system by regulating biogeochemical cycles, nutrient cycle, waste degradation, organic matter degradation etc. The biggest threat to soil health are pesticides and synthetic chemicals including fertilizers. Earthworms are most severely hit by these xenobiotic compounds leading to a sizeable reduction of their population and adversely affecting soil fertility. Earthworms are incredible soil organisms playing a crucial role in maintaining soil health. Pesticides used in crop management are known to be most over-purchased and irrationally used soil toxicants, simultaneously, used insecticides contribute to a quantum of damage to earthworms and other non-target organisms. LC50 and LD50 studies revealed that earthworms are highly susceptible to insecticides causing immobility, rigidity and also show a significant effect on biomass reduction, growth and reproduction by disrupting various physiological activities leading to loss of earthworm population and soil biodiversity.