To examine sex-specific differences in the demographics and work patterns of Canadian orthodontists. Questionnaires were mailed and emailed to a random sample of 384 orthodontists: 289 men and 95 women. Questions regarding work patterns and personal demographics were created and results were compared by sex. The response rate was 53.9%. The demographics and work patterns for male and female orthodontists were similar for most variables. Women were found to be 6 years younger; have 6 fewer years of work experience; expect to retire earlier; be more often married to a professional in full-time employment; and be more likely to take a leave of absence during their career than their male colleagues. Age significantly affected the number of hours worked per week and number of phase II starts per year; both variables increased with increasing age until approximately 50 years, after which they decreased with age. Having children did not significantly affect any of the analyzed variables. As the practice of female orthodontists was not found to be substantially different from that of men, it is not possible to speculate whether the increasing number of women specializing in orthodontics will provoke a significant change in the profession. As this is the first survey of its kind in Canada, these results may be used as a reference for future comparisons to determine work patterns and trends in the orthodontic workforce.