This study presents and tests a new conceptualization of the relationship between the type of social environment in which women work and their fertility and contraceptive use using data from three separate studies conducted in Maputo, Mozambique, in 1993. Studies demonstrated that women who work in more collectivized environments are associated with lower fertility and higher contraceptive use than women in an individualized work environment or not working outside the home. Most of these differences persist in multivariate tests. However, it is argued that collectivized work environment are most conducive to diffusion and legitimization of reproductive innovations. In contrast, individualized work environment tends to isolate women and therefore may retard their acceptance of innovative fertility-related behavior.