Structural adjustments can have negative impact, especially for the poorest people in the rural areas. This article explores the consequences of the liberalization of cotton production in northern Ghana, in terms of gender relations in the household and the bigger community in the context of production and provisioning. It draws on an 18-month study conducted in 1995 and 1996. Section 1 describes gender relations and agriculture in Kusasi, northern Ghana. Section 2 looks at the households, farming and provisioning situations in Mamprusi. The effects of liberalization and structural adjustment and how women responded to the new opportunity are discussed in sections 3 and 4, respectively. The final sections examine the difficulties faced by women who take on new burdens as a result of structural change and looks at alternative means of meeting strategic needs of women farmers.