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Widespread time-dependent changes in tissue cytokine concentrations in brain regions during the acute phase of endotoxemia in mice.

  • Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae1
  • Inaba, Muneo2
  • Shimada, Atsuyoshi3
  • 1 Pathology Research Team, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 5-4-1 Shimorenjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8612, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 2 First Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, 2-5-1 Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1010, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 3 Pathology Research Team, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 5-4-1 Shimorenjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8612, Japan; Central Hospital, Aichi Developmental Disability Center, 713-8 Kamiya, Kasugai, Aichi, 480-0392, Japan. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Japan)
Published Article
Publication Date
Oct 16, 2019
DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.10.006
PMID: 31628962


Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse brain dysfunction induced by the systemic response to infection in septic patients. In the present study, we modeled SAE by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally to mice at a concentration of 3.0 mg/kg. We investigated regional preferences for cytokine-mediated brain reactions to endotoxemia and at what time point brain inflammation begins, as well as what cytokines are involved in acute brain reactions. Brains were divided into seven parts: cortex (CTX), olfactory system (Olf), hippocampus (Hip), striatum (Str), diencephalon (Die), brain stem (BS), and cerebellum (CBL). In each brain region, we determined the tissue concentrations of 11 cytokines: CCL2, CCL3, CCL11, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9, CXCL10, G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, in mice injected with LPS or saline, at 1, 4, and 24 h after injection using multiplex cytokine assays. Every brain region responded with the production of multiple cytokines to LPS-induced systemic inflammation during the acute phase (4-24 h) after LPS injection. IL-6, CCL2, CCL3, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9, and TNF-α were "early cytokines" that increased only at 4 h but not at 24 h after LPS injection in most brain regions. CCL11, CXCL10, and G-CSF were "late cytokines" that were elevated up to 24 h after LPS injection in selected brain regions. The regions Olf, Hip, and Die were the most responsive to endotoxemia; these regions produced ten cytokines and continued to produce three "late cytokines" up to 24 h after LPS injection. Str was the least responsive to endotoxemia. The widespread nature of brain cytokine production explains the characteristics of SAE. Further studies on the roles of CCL11, CXCL10, and G-CSF may be especially important in terms of potential prevention of SAE between 4 and 24 h after the onset of sepsis. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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