From 2003-2006, the health status of 17,641 girls and boys was comprehensively assessed by interview and medical examinations in the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Therewith, data exists for a broad spectrum of health relevant questions in childhood and adolescence, including indicators, determinants and consequences of obesity. As part of the health monitoring system of the Robert Koch Institute, KiGGS is being continued as a longitudinal study. This enables the observation of health development of children and adolescents up to adulthood as well as the detection of changes in behavior and circumstances within this population. This offers many new perspectives for analyses, whose findings may be helpful for the prevention of obesity. Current insights and future perspectives are discussed.