After adjustment for age, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, and body mass index by logistic regression analysis, and after assigning the CHD risk of 1 to Category I, the relative risk for men and women combined rose to 1.42 in Category III (p<0.045) while it diminished to 0.94 in Category IV (p = 0.79). In women, the odds ratio (OR) rose gradually up to 1.78 (p< 0.025) in Category III, only to decline in Category IV. The OR in men was slightly, insignificantly, and equally elevated in Categories III and IV. Patients with CHD in Category III were not distinguished from those in Category IV by the studied risk parameters. It was suggested that high risk for CHD--particularly in subjects with slightly elevated or normal cholesterol levels-is often not reflected by extreme increases of fasting triglycerides but best by modest elevations (140-212 mg/dl), which serve better as a marker of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. This knowledge may prove to be of value in population screening and individual risk assessment.