Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against viral infection. After invading into the cells, pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns derived from viruses are recognized by pattern recognition receptors to activate the downstream signaling pathways to induce the production of type I interferons (IFN-I) and inflammatory cytokines, which play critical functions in the host antiviral innate immune responses. Guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) are IFN-inducible antiviral effectors belonging to the guanosine triphosphatases family. In addition to exerting direct antiviral functions against certain viruses, a few GBPs also exhibit regulatory roles on the host antiviral innate immunity. However, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of GBPs' roles in viral infection and host antiviral innate immune signaling is still very limited. Therefore, here we present an updated overview of the functions of GBPs during viral infection and in antiviral innate immunity, and highlight discrepancies in reported findings and current challenges for future studies, which will advance our understanding of the functions of GBPs and provide a scientific and theoretical basis for the regulation of antiviral innate immunity.