Recurrent implantation failure (RlF) may be due to unrecognized uterine pathology. Hysterosalpingography, transvaginal ultrasonography, saline infusion sonography and hysteroscopy are the tools to assess the inner architecture of the uterus. Hysteroscopy is considered to be the gold standard; however, the validity of hysteroscopy may be limited in the diagnosis of endometritis and endometrial hyperplasia. The frequencies of unrecognized uterine pathology revealed by hysteroscopy are 18-50% and 40-43% in patients undergoing IVF with or without RlF, respectively. Endometrial polyps may be associated with increased miscarriage rates. Implantation rates are decreased in patients with submucous or intramural fibroids with distorted uterine cavity. There is controversy on the impact of uterine septum less than 1 cm length on pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. There is paucity of data on the role of hysteroscopy in failed IVF cycles. In the available two randomized controlled trials, pregnancy rates appear to be increased when hysteroscopy is performed; however within the hysteroscopy group, pregnancy rates are comparable among the normal or surgically corrected subgroups. Further studies are warranted to delineate the role of hysteroscopy in patients with failed IVF cycle(s). This review aims to evaluate the validity of office hysteroscopy in failed IVF cycles.