Reflections on the radicality of thyroidectomy are based on the persisting lack of uniformity as regards terminology, indications and techniques of thyroid surgery. The authors emphasize four basic factors involved in the solution of thyroid diseases: A. respecting the preoperative examination and recommendations of the endocrinologist, B. philosophy of the surgeon and his workplace, C. experience and skill of the surgeon, D. postoperative follow-up and treatment of patients. The necessity of multidisciplinary collaboration emphasized under A is followed under B by a detailed analysis of principles of the workplace as regards indications and technical and tactical aspects. In part C necessary theoretical and personal problems of the thyroid surgeon are summarized. Without careful postoperative check-up examinations and evaluation of the results of operations mentioned under D we cannot speak of radicality of thyroid surgery.