College students are exposed to an environment that places their health at risk. As a result, they are vulnerable to health-related problems. In order to improve health promotion behaviors, it is necessary to identify the variables affecting these behaviors. However, few studies have comprehensively examined health consciousness, health perception, and self-esteem as variables in health promotion behaviors among college students. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors influencing health promotion behaviors in college students. Data were collected from 331 students, using a structured questionnaire based on the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (health promotion behaviors), Dutta-Bergman's Health Consciousness Scale (health consciousness), the Health Perception Questionnaire (health perception), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (self-esteem), and sociodemographic data. To assess the factors that influence health promotion behaviors, a multiple regression analysis was performed. Health promotion behaviors were higher when health cognition was higher (r=.421, p<.001), health perception was higher (r=.326, p<.001), and self-esteem was higher (r=.526, p<.001). The constructed model for health promotion behaviors showed that the statistically significant explanatory variables were health cognition, health perception, and self-esteem. The model explained 34.9% of the variance in health promotion behaviors. It will be necessary to develop an intervention program targeting health cognition, health perception, and self-esteem in order to increase health promotion behaviors in college students.