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"We've Got to Bring Information to Where People Are Comfortable": Community-Based Advance Care Planning with the Black Community.

  • Nouri, Sarah1
  • Quinn, Mara2
  • Doyle, Brittney N3
  • McKissack, Mac4
  • Johnson, Natalya2
  • Wertz, Molly5
  • Tan, Charissa6
  • Pantilat, Steven Z2
  • Lyles, Courtney R7
  • Ritchie, Christine S8
  • Sudore, Rebecca L9
  • 1 Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. [email protected].
  • 2 Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 3 WISE Health, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 4 TheKey, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 5 Molly Wertz Consulting, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 6 John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'I at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI, USA.
  • 7 Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 8 Division of Palliative Care and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
  • 9 Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.
Published Article
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Publication Date
Aug 01, 2023
DOI: 10.1007/s11606-023-08134-2
PMID: 36894819


People identifying as Black/African American are less likely to engage in advance care planning (ACP) compared to their White peers, despite the association of ACP with improved patient and caregiver outcomes. Assess facilitators/barriers to ACP in the San Francisco (SF) Black community and co-design/implement/test community-based ACP pilot events. Community-based participatory research, including qualitative research, intervention development, and implementation. In partnership with the SF Palliative Care Workgroup (which includes health system, city, and community-based organizations), we formed an African American Advisory Committee (n = 13). We conducted 6 focus groups with Black older adults (age ≥ 55), caregivers, and community leaders (n = 29). The Advisory Committee then selected 5 community-based organizations through a widespread request for proposal. These community-based organizations designed and implemented community-based pilot events to support ACP engagement. Two authors analyzed recorded focus group transcripts using thematic analysis. We assessed pre- vs post-event readiness to engage in ACP (validated ACP Engagement Survey; 1-4 scale, 4 = most ready) using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and assessed event acceptability with open-ended questions. Themes included the importance of ACP to the Black community (sub-themes: strengthens families; preserves dignity, particularly for sexual/gender minorities; is tied to financial planning) and facilitators for increasing ACP engagement (sub-themes: culturally relevant materials; events in trusted community spaces including Black-owned businesses). A total of 114 participants attended 5 events; 74% identified as Black, and 16% as sexual/gender minorities. Readiness to engage in ACP was similar pre- vs post-events; 98% would recommend the events to others. Community-based ACP events designed and led by and for the Black community are highly acceptable. Novel insights underscored the importance of financial planning as part of ACP and the role of Black-owned businesses as trusted spaces for ACP-related discussions. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Society of General Internal Medicine.

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