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Weltweite Infrastruktur zur Wasserstoffbereitstellung auf Basis erneuerbarer Energien

  • Heuser, Philipp-Matthias
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2021
Publikationsserver der RWTH Aachen University
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International climate protection goals, shrinking fossil energy reserves and a growing global energy demand require the massive integration of renewable energy sources into the global energy system. The utilization of large wind and solar energy resources in international, climatically and geographically favorable regions in order to supply regions worldwide with high-energy requirements poses the challenge of spatial and temporal discrepancies between energy supply and demand. The use of hydrogen based on renewable energies offers a promising option for meeting this challenge. The objective of this work is the conception and techno-economic evaluation of a worldwide hydrogen infrastructure based on renewable energies to cover a future global hydrogen demand. In this context, it is necessary to calculate the worldwide supply potential of renewably produced hydrogen, to identify the significant cost contributions within the framework of the infrastructure and to determine cost-optimal import pathways. The analysis stands out due a temporally and spatially resolved modeling of the electricity generation from wind and solar energy as well as the domestic supply infrastructure for hydrogen. Subject to defined degrees of expansion of the renewable energy technologies, supply and cost curves for hydrogen result, providing the basis for the hydrogen allocation with the aim of minimizing global overall cost. The determined hydrogen supply potential of 1,590 MtH2 in the investigated preferential regions clearly exceeds the projected global demand range of 244 to 487 MtH2 in 2050. More than 75% of the hydrogen potential in the preferential regions can be provided for costs below 4.00 EUR/kgH2. The resulting import costs are affected only to a minor extent by supply and demand variations and range between 3.00 and 4.50 EUR/kgH2 depending on the import region. From an economic point of view, cost optimal wind energy expansion levels for hydrogen export should be aimed for in all selected strong wind regions. At the same time, a massive expansion of photovoltaics is only advisable in a few sunny and geographically favorable regions such as North Africa and the Middle East. Within the scope of the infrastructure, the relevant cost contributions are attributable to electricity production, electrolysis and overseas transport. The worldwide allocation structure, characterized by regionalization, is due to precisely this transport cost influence. Despite the additional domestic distribution infrastructure, hydrogen imports prove to be a cost-effective alternative to conventional fuels in the German transport sector. The results of this work show that a future global hydrogen demand can be covered by renewable, economically competitive hydrogen imports from international preferential regions.

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