This study investigated the association of the Wealth Index of married women in Egypt with a number of gender and reproductive health issues found in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. The data from a subsample of 5249 currently married women from a total of 19,474 was examined using logistic regression analysis. The women's lowest wealth quintile predicted the intention to continue female genital cutting for their daughters, exposure to physical and sexual marital violence, not being empowered in household decisions, having a higher number of children, having an unintended last child, mothers' maltreatment of their children, the perception of a lack of health-care providers or drugs as an obstacle to receiving care, and not being covered by health insurance. The association of poverty with the aforementioned adverse health outcomes are discussed. Physicians should understand the effect of poverty on health and endeavour to influence policy-makers to reduce the poverty burden on health.