RNAs adopt specific structures in order to perform their biological activities. The structure of RNA is an important layer of gene expression regulation, and can impact a plethora of cellular processes, starting with transcription, RNA processing, and translation, and ending with RNA turnover. The development of high-throughput technologies has enabled a deeper insight into the sophisticated interplay between the structure of the cellular transcriptome and the living cells environment. In this review, we present the current view on the RNA structure in vivo resulting from the most recent transcriptome-wide studies in different organisms, including mammalians, yeast, plants, and bacteria. We focus on the relationship between the mRNA structure and translation, mRNA stability and degradation, protein binding, and RNA posttranscriptional modifications.