The JUNO experiment is a multi-purpose liquid scintillator neutrino experiment with the main objective of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy (nuMH) with a significance better than 3sigma. To achieve this goal, it is crucial that JUNO has an unprecedented energy resolution of 3% at 1 MeV. Therefore, the JUNO Central Detector (CD) will be built with 20000 ton high transparency liquid scintillator and high photomultiplier tube (PMT) photocathode coverage of 78%, which is provided by 18000 20"-PMTs (LPMTs) and 25000 3"-PMTs (SPMTs). At the same time, the background induced by atmospheric muons should be vetoed by using reconstructed muon tracks. The Top Tracker (TT) is a muon tracker installed on top of the CD for precise muon tracking.This thesis details firstly the optimisation of the LPMT and the SPMT systems, which are directly related to the antineutrino calorimetry. New designs of light concentrator tailored for the JUNO LPMT are studied in order to verify their performance on increasing the JUNO photoelectron yield. By comparing different configurations, the relation between the SPMT system performance and the non-uniform distribution of the SPMT emplacements is studied, and the scheme used for cabling between SPMTs and their Under Water Boxes (UWBs) is studied to ensure a minimal performance degradation in case of UWB failure.Afterwards, this thesis reports on the design and optimisation of the TT trigger algorithms. Due to the background induced by natural radioactivity in the JUNO cavern, the TT cannot work correctly without a trigger system. The results show that a 2-level trigger with the optimised trigger algorithm is effective for the background suppression and thus a muon detection efficiency of 93% can be achieved.A discussion about the TT contribution to the suppression and the measurement of the atmospheric muon-induced background, is also included.