BACKGROUND Wavelet index (WLi) and pain rating index (PRi) are new parameters for regulating general anesthesia depth based on wavelet analysis. AIM To investigate the safety and efficacy of using WLi or PRi in sevoflurane anesthesia. METHODS This randomized controlled trial enrolled 66 patients scheduled for elective posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia between September 2017 and February 2018. A random number generator was used to assign the eligible patients to three groups: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) monitoring group, WLi monitoring group, and PRi monitoring group. The main anesthesiologist was aware of the patient grouping and intervention used. The primary endpoint was anesthesia recovery time. Secondary endpoints included extubation time, sevoflurane consumption, number of unwanted events/ interventions, number of adverse events and postoperative visual analogue scale for pain. RESULTS A total of 62 patients were included in the final analysis (SBP group, n = 21; WLi group, n = 21; and PRi group, n = 20). There were no significant differences among the three groups in patient age, gender distribution, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, duration of surgery, or duration of anesthesia. Anesthesia recovery time was shorter in the WLi and PRi groups than in the SBP group with no significant difference between the WLi and PRi groups. Extubation time was shorter in the WLi and PRi groups than in the SBP group. Sevoflurane consumption was lower in the WLi and PRi groups than in the SBP group. Nicardipine was more commonly needed to treat hypertension in the WLi and PRi groups than in the SBP group. CONCLUSION Regulation of sevoflurane anesthesia depth with WLi or PRi reduced anesthesia recovery time, extubation time and sevoflurane consumption without intraoperative unwanted events.