Abstract—Microorganisms produce various volatile compounds, including volatile organic compounds and complex combinations of volatile compounds. The ecological and functional role of these compounds is presently the subject of intense study. Volatile organic compounds of microbial origin may possess antimicrobial properties, suppress or stimulate plant growth, and act as signals for long-distance communication between organisms (infochemicals), which propagate in the air and in aquatic solutions. Chemical diversity of volatile organic compounds of microbial origin provides a source of new compounds which may find application in medicine, biotechnology, and agriculture. Presently known bacterial volatile compounds, their structure, biosynthesis, and biological activity are discussed, with special emphasis on organic volatile compounds and their effect on bacteria.