During infection and inflammation, a reduced oxygen level clearly affects cellular functions. Oxygen levels during CNS infections are unknown. Here we established and evaluated an in vivo measurement system to characterize the oxygen level in parallel with bacterial numbers (CFU/mL), the cell number and pH level inside the CSF of healthy compared to Streptococcus suis-infected pigs. The animals were anesthetized over a seven-hour period with isoflurane in air/oxygen at physiologic arterial partial pressure of oxygen. Oxygen levels in CSF of anesthetized pigs were compared to euthanized pigs. The detected partial pressure of oxygen in the CSF remained constant in a range of 47–63 mmHg, independent of the infection status (bacterial or cell number). In contrast, the pH value showed a slight drop during infection, which correlated with cell and bacterial number in CSF. We present physiologic oxygen and pH values in CSF during the onset of bacterial meningitis.