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In Vivo Evaluation of Periodontal Phenotypes Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Intraoral Scanning by Computer-Aided Design, and Prosthetic-Driven Implant Planning Technology

  • Bednarz-Tumidajewicz, Magdalena1
  • Sender-Janeczek, Aleksandra2
  • Zborowski, Jacek2
  • Gedrange, Tomasz3
  • Konopka, Tomasz2
  • Prylińska-Czyżewska, Agata4
  • Dembowska, Elżbieta5
  • Bednarz, Wojciech1, 2
  • 1 Department of Periodontology, Specialist Outpatient Medical Clinic MEDIDENT, Gorlice, Poland
  • 2 Department of Periodontology, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland
  • 3 Department of Oral Surgery, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland
  • 4 Department of Temporomandibular Disorders, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
  • 5 Department of Periodontology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Published Article
Medical Science Monitor
"International Scientific Information, Inc."
Publication Date
Oct 16, 2020
DOI: 10.12659/MSM.924469
PMID: 33064673
PMCID: PMC7574361
PubMed Central


Background Two clinical parameters, the gingival thickness (GT) and the width of keratinized tissue (WKT), describe the gingival phenotype, which is defined as the 3-dimensional volume of the gingiva. The periodontal phenotype additionally includes the thickness of the labial plate of the alveolar crest (TLPAC). Material/Methods Thirty patients with healthy periodontium on the upper canines and incisors underwent measurements for crestal, supracrestal, free gingival thickness (FGT), the alveolar crest-gingival margin (AC-GM), alveolar crest-cementoenamel junction distance, and the TLPAC at 2, 4, and 8 mm apically from the edge of the alveolar crest using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with computer-aided design and prosthetic-driven implant planning technology. For each tooth, the gingival and periodontal phenotype was evaluated on the basis of the gingival thickness, width of keratinized tissue (WKT), and TLPAC measurements. Each patient’s periodontal phenotype was evaluated according to the coronal width/length ratio of both the upper central incisors. Results The dentogingival units had varying average values for the 3 periodontal phenotypes (thin phenotype: FGT 0.65±0.06 mm, WKT 4.85±1.18 mm, AC-GM 3.17±0.64 mm, TLPAC2 0.66±0.28 mm; medium phenotype: FGT 0.87±0.07 mm, WKT 5.49±1.23 mm, AC-GM 3.36±0.65 mm, TLPAC2 0.76±0.37 mm; and thick phenotype: FGT 1.20 mm, WKT 6.00 mm, AC-GM 3.90 mm, TLPAC2 0.90 mm). Positive correlations were seen among WKT, FGT, AC-GM, and TLPAC2. Conclusions Positive correlations between the FGT and WKT, and the AC-GM distance confirm that measurements using CBCT with computer-aided design and prosthetic-driven implant planning technology can evaluate the gingival phenotype and TLPAC2 for the periodontal phenotype.

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