An absorbable membrane made from purified, pepsin-soluble collagen was compared to Interceed, an absorbable cellulose-based product, and to a control group for effectiveness in inhibiting the formation of adhesions between peritoneal surface injuries in adult rats. An adhesion scoring system was used to evaluate and compare the performance of the test materials with the control group in regard to the extent, tenacity, and type of any adhesions evident at 28 days following surgery. The collagen group performed significantly better (p < 0.05) than either the Interceed or control groups, showing fewer, less extensive adhesions. The collagen membranes resulted in either no or weak adhesions between the body wall and caecum. Adhesions in the Interceed group were quite variable and characterized by a marked peritoneal reaction in the caecal and body walls adjacent to adhesions. Control samples were characterized by close, dense fibrotic adhesions between the caecum and body wall. Both of the test materials showed some deficiencies in respect to their physical and handling properties that could be further improved for this indication.