Magnesium alloy has been implanted in rats to investigate the in vivo degradation behavior of magnesium for bone implant application. After 9 weeks postoperation, 100% implants were fixed and no inflammation was observed. Histological analysis showed new bone was formed around magnesium implant and no difference was found in the histological microstructure of the new bone and the cortical bone. A degradation or reaction layer, which was mainly composed of Ca, P, O, and Mg, was formed on the surface of magnesium alloy implants. High Ca content in the degradation layer displayed that magnesium could promote the deposition of Ca. Residual area calculation has showed that 10-17% magnesium alloy implant has been degraded in vivo. Compared with that of the controlled rats, no increase in serum magnesium and no disorder of kidney were observed after 15 weeks postoperation. After 18 weeks postoperation, 100% magnesium implants were fixed and no inflammation was observed. About 54% magnesium implant has degraded in vivo. Element analysis showed that Zn and Mn in Mg-Mn-Zn alloy distributed homogeneously in the residual magnesium implant, the degradation layer, and the surrounding bone tissue after 18 weeks implantation, indicating that Zn and Mn elements were easily absorbed by bioenvironment.