Mononuclear cells in pleural fluid from patients with tuberculous pleurisy were predominantly T cells. Responsiveness of pleural fluid T cells to purified protein derivative of tuberculin were studied by the assay of cell proliferation and production of lymphocyte mitogenic factor by the stimulation with purified protein derivative. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were also studied from patients and tuberculin-positive healthy controls. The order of responsiveness was as follows: pleural fluid lymphocytes greater than peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients without effusion = peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy controls greater than peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with effusion. The poor response of peripheral blood lymphocytes from pleurisy patients were recovered by the elimination of adherent cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes to the level of the response of peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy controls. T cells purified from pleural fluid mononuclear cells responded more than those from peripheral blood. These results suggested that in the pleurisy patients purified protein derivative-reactive T cells in peripheral blood did not decrease in activity, but were depressed by suppressor cells, and further suggested that highly purified protein derivative-reactive T cells were accumulated in the pleural fluid.