This review introduces newly developed serum-free media (IVD101 and IVMD101), that are effective for producing high yields of transferable embryos of good quality from in vitro-matured and -fertilized oocytes. Both serum-free media produced better results than serum-containing medium, including increased rates of blastocyst formation, post-thaw embryo viability, and pregnancy after transfer. In addition, reduced risks of calf mortality and large calf syndrome were also observed for the serum-free-derived embryos. Serum-derived embryos contained a large number of lipid droplets and immature mitochondria in their cytoplasm that may account for the lower production of transferable embryos and poor embryo quality. A non-invasive technique using scanning electrochemical microscopy was successful in quantitatively measuring oxygen consumption of single embryos. This technique may prove to be reliable for predicting embryo viability and subsequent developmental ability.