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In vitro pharmacodynamics of human simulated exposures of ceftaroline and daptomycin against MRSA, hVISA, and VISA with and without prior vancomycin exposure.

Authors
  • Bhalodi, Amira A
  • Hagihara, Mao
  • Nicolau, David P
  • Kuti, Joseph L
Type
Published Article
Journal
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2014
Volume
58
Issue
2
Pages
672–677
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01516-13
PMID: 24217694
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The effects of prior vancomycin exposure on ceftaroline and daptomycin therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have not been widely studied. Humanized free-drug exposures of vancomycin at 1 g every 12 h (q12h), ceftaroline at 600 mg q12h, and daptomycin at 10 mg/kg of body weight q24h were simulated in a 96-h in vitro pharmacodynamic model against three MRSA isolates, including one heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) isolate and one VISA isolate. A total of five regimens were tested: vancomycin, ceftaroline, and daptomycin alone for the entire 96 h, and then sequential therapy with vancomycin for 48 h followed by ceftaroline or daptomycin for 48 h. Microbiological responses were measured by the changes in log10 CFU during 96 h from baseline. Control isolates grew to 9.16 ± 0.32, 9.13 ± 0.14, and 8.69 ± 0.28 log10 CFU for MRSA, hVISA, and VISA, respectively. Vancomycin initially achieved ≥3 log10 CFU reductions against the MRSA and hVISA isolates, followed by regrowth beginning at 48 h; minimal activity was observed against VISA. The change in 96-h log10 CFU was largest for sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by ceftaroline (-5.22 ± 1.2, P = 0.010 versus ceftaroline) and for sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by ceftaroline (-3.60 ± 0.6, P = 0.037 versus daptomycin), compared with daptomycin (-2.24 ± 1.0), vancomycin (-1.40 ± 1.8), and sequential therapy with vancomycin followed by daptomycin (-1.32 ± 1.0, P > 0.5 for the last three regimens). Prior exposure of vancomycin at 1 g q12h reduced the initial microbiological response of daptomycin, particularly for hVISA and VISA isolates, but did not affect the response of ceftaroline. In the scenario of poor vancomycin response for high-inoculum MRSA infection, a ceftaroline-containing regimen may be preferred.

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