An efficient and reproduciblein vitro culture system has been developed for regeneration of multiple shoot clumps from intact seedlings of both lowland and upland cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). The multiple shoots were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5YL)-urea (thidiazuron or TDZ). Maximum response was obtained with 4.5 μM 2,4-D and 18.2 μM TDZ. These shoots proliferated and rooted efficiently on MS medium without growth regulators. The developmental pattern of the multiple shoots indicated their origin from the enlarged shoot apex via proliferation of axillary buds and subsequent reprogramming of shoot meristems followed by secondary differentiation of adventitious shoots The simplicity of the protocol and direct production of multiple shoots make this a potential system that is highly attractive and amenable for microprojectile-mediated gene transfer.