Goat epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing pyruvate and lactate as energy source. A 3 hr incubation for epididymal and 4 hr for ejaculated spermatozoa was required for the capacitation and acrosome reaction to take place. Calcium is an essential requirement which was needed for motility maintenance/activation and for the initiation of acrosome reaction. A 2-fold increase in cAMP content was measured over 3 hr period of incubation of goat epididymal spermatozoa which was not seen when calcium ions were either omitted or chelated with EGTA. There is thus a definite involvement of Ca2+ ions and cAMP in capacitation and acrosome reaction of goat spermatozoa.