Diabetic macular edema (DME) is still one of the main causes of visual impairment. Repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab are considered the gold standard treatment, but the efficacy in patients with prominent cystic characteristics remains uncertain. In diabetic retinas, the identification of both antero-posterior and, particularly, tangential tractions is crucial to prevent misdiagnosis of tractional and refractory DME, and therefore to prevent poor treatment outcomes. The treatment of tractional DME with anti-VEGF injections could be poorly effective due to the influence of a tractional force. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is a surgical procedure that has been widely used in the treatment of diffuse and refractory DME. Anatomical improvement, although stable and immediate, did not result in visual improvement. PPV with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of non-tractional DME in patients with prominent cysts (> 390 μm) causes subfoveal atrophy, defined as “floor effect”. Epiretinal tangential forces and intraretinal change evaluation by SD-OCT of non-tractional DME are essential for determining appropriate management.