Results from a randomized clinical trial suggested that vitamin A/beta-carotene supplementation to HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy and lactation may increase the risk of vertical transmission. Limited information is available on the potential role of vitamin A on heterosexual HIV transmission. This is a relevant question in many resource-limited settings where both vitamin A deficiency and HIV infection are highly prevalent. We conducted a case-control study (34 cases and 38 controls) nested within a cohort of HIV-negative women attending family planning clinics in Tanzania, to examine whether low serum concentrations at baseline were associated with the risk of seroconversion. There was not a significant association (OR = 2.14, 95% C I = 0.54, 8.45). In light of these and previous results, we conclude that there is not enough evidence yet to suggest a causal association between vitamin A and heterosexual transmission.