Background: Conflicting evidence supports a role for vitamin D in women with reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but studies on large, unselected populations have been lacking. Methods: We conducted a general population-based study from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966). Serum 25-hydroksyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were evaluated in women with self-reported PCOS (n = 280) versus non-symptomatic controls (n = 1573) at the age of 31 with wide range of endocrine and metabolic confounders. Results: The levels of 25(OH)D were similar among women with and without self-reported PCOS (50.35 vs. 48.30 nmol/L, p = 0.051). Women with self-reported PCOS presented with a higher body mass index (BMI), increased insulin resistance, and low-grade inflammation and testosterone levels compared to controls. The adjusted linear regression model showed a positive association between total 25(OH)D levels in self-reported PCOS (&beta / = 2.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 4.08, p = 0.003). The result remained after adjustment for BMI, testosterone, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Conclusion: In this population-based setting, PCOS was associated with higher vitamin D levels when adjusting for confounding factors, without distinct beneficial effects on metabolic derangements.