Studies on bone mineral health in children have been primarily based on clinical, biochemical and radiological evidence. Measurement of vitamin D levels and bone mass by non invasive imaging techniques like dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), have led to a plethora of data regarding various factors responsible for bone mineral health from various countries including India. We reviewed the currently available evidence on status of calcium-vitamin D-parathormone (PTH) relationship and bone mineral density (BMD) in apparently healthy children. High prevalence of clinical and biochemical hypovitaminosis D exists in apparently healthy school children from north India. Also, children from upper socio-economic strata (USES) from Delhi had significantly higher mean BMD values at distal forearm (BMDdf) and calcameum (BMDca) than those from lower socio-economic strata (LSES). Age, nutrition, height and weight were seen to be significantly associated with BMD at peripheral sites.