Twenty patients with infantile spasms were treated with high doses of vitamin b6, valproic acid, or both. Three of 13 patients (23%) treated initially with high doses of vitamin B6 demonstrated a definite reduction in seizures; 2 patients had no improvement on electroencephalography. Vitamin B6 therapy alone was continued in a single patient (8%) who remained seizure-free during the 15-month follow-up period. Initial treatment with vitamin B6 and valproic acid improved the electroencephalogram significantly more (P less than 0.05) than initial vitamin B6 treatment alone. The group which had valproic acid added to vitamin B6 therapy had significantly fewer seizures (P less than 0.05) and better electroencephalograms (P less than 0.01) than did the group treated initially with vitamin B6 alone. There were no significant differences among the group treated initially with vitamin B6, the group treated initially with valproic acid, and the group in which valproic acid was substituted for vitamin B6. ACTH was more effective in abolishing seizures than was valproic acid or vitamin B6 and valproic acid. ACTH had an excellent effect on seizures in 86% of patients who did not respond well to vitamin B6, valproic acid, or both; however, many of these patients had later recurrence of infantile spasms. The combination of vitamin B6 and valproic acid is effective and safe in the treatment of infantile spasms.