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Visualizing, quantifying, and manipulating mitochondrial DNA in vivo

Authors
  • Prole, David L.1, 2
  • Chinnery, Patrick F.2, 3
  • Jones, Nick S.1
  • 1 Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
  • 2 Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • 3 Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Publisher
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publication Date
Dec 18, 2020
Volume
295
Issue
51
Pages
17588–17601
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.REV120.015101
PMID: 33454000
PMCID: PMC7762947
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins and RNAs that support the functions of mitochondria and thereby numerous physiological processes. Mutations of mtDNA can cause mitochondrial diseases and are implicated in aging. The mtDNA within cells is organized into nucleoids within the mitochondrial matrix, but how mtDNA nucleoids are formed and regulated within cells remains incompletely resolved. Visualization of mtDNA within cells is a powerful means by which mechanistic insight can be gained. Manipulation of the amount and sequence of mtDNA within cells is important experimentally and for developing therapeutic interventions to treat mitochondrial disease. This review details recent developments and opportunities for improvements in the experimental tools and techniques that can be used to visualize, quantify, and manipulate the properties of mtDNA within cells.

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