We report on six patients with chronic pulmonary embolism who underwent 123I-IMP and 99Tcm-MAA lung SPET before and after thromboendarterectomy. 123I-IMP lung SPET can assess the viability of lung parenchyma, because it is a non-particulate agent that accumulates in the endothelial membranes of pulmonary capillaries. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism accompanied by pulmonary hypertension has a poor prognosis that may be improved only by thromboendarterectomy. We compared 123I-IMP and 99Tcm-MAA lung SPET in terms of functional improvement after such surgery. After thromboendarterectomy, all six patients were functionally improved, according to the criteria of the New York Heart Association. The pre- and post-surgery percentage of vascular obstruction did not differ significantly with 99Tcm-MAA lung SPET (44.8 +/- 11.2% and 32.5 +/- 15.6% pre- and post-surgery, respectively). In contrast, 123I-IMP lung SPET revealed a significant pre- versus post-surgery difference (15.5 +/- 9.5% and 3.3 +/- 5.9% pre- and post-surgery, respectively). 123I-IMP lung SPET could be useful for evaluating thromboendarterectomy because pulmonary parenchymal viability owing to arterial microvasculature can be estimated.