Background/Aims: Prior studies of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) have reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau levels correlate with hippocampal/medial temporal lobe atrophy. These findings suggest that CSF tau indices in AD may reflect tau-related neurodegeneration in the medial temporal lobe. However, it remains uncertain whether elevated CSF tau levels in the clinically heterogeneous subtypes of early-onset AD (EOAD; amnestic, posterior cortical atrophy [PCA], and logopenic progressive aphasia [LPA]) are attributable to similar underlying mechanisms. Methods: We identified 41 EOAD patients (18 amnestic, 14 with LPA, and 9 with PCA) with CSF and brain MRI data. Semiquantitative ratings were used to assess medial temporal lobe atrophy and PCA, which were compared to CSF biomarker indices. Results: Lower CSF tau levels were seen in PCA relative to amnestic EOAD and LPA, but similar ratings for medial temporal lobe atrophy and PCA were seen across the groups. After adjustments for demographics and cognitive performance, both total (p = 0.004) and hyperphosphorylated (p = 0.026) tau levels correlated with medial temporal lobe atrophy across this EOAD cohort. Conclusions: These results replicate prior findings in late-onset AD and support the hypothesis that CSF tau levels primarily reflect tau-related neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus/medial temporal lobe across the clinical subtypes of EOAD.