Vision is a primary and motivating sense. Early visual experience derived from the external world is known to have an important impact on the development of central visual pathways, and not surprisingly, visual impairment constitutes a risk factor for overall development. In light of the role of vision in early brain development, infants and young children with visual impairment should be thus entitled to early and effective visual intervention programmes. In this review, we discuss early visual interventions in infants and young children with visual impairment, focusing on their contents and outcomes. We defined a PICO format to critically review different models with a particular focus on parent-mediated and therapist-mediated approaches. We consider protocols that involved direct manipulation or improvement of the infants' visual inputs or were based on behavioural strategies and communication towards infants with visual impairment. We also provide an overview of the effectiveness of these protocols. A total of nine intervention protocols were selected for the purposes of this review. Substantial agreement regarding the importance of promoting the enrichment of infant environments, and more specifically in the context of active play that engages the whole family, has been reported in most of the studies. However, there is no clear agreement on methodological aspects, including clinical population characteristics, outcome measures, length of treatment and follow-up programmes. Further high-quality, carefully designed and adequately reported studies are needed in order to improve the clinical efficacy of these approaches to treating infants with visual impairment. © 2022 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.