Forty-three bovine isolates of Escherichia coli producing a second type of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF2) and three K-12 strains carrying different Vir plasmids coding for CNF2 were tested for the presence of several virulence factors. Most of the strains were serum resistant (79%), produced an aerobactin (70%), and adhered to calf villi (53%); some of them produced a colicin (32%) and a hemolysin (9%). These strains were also tested by a colony hybridization assay with gene probes for six toxins (classical heat-stable [STaP and STb] and heat-labile [LT-I and LT-IIa] enterotoxins and Shiga-like toxins [SLT-I and SLT-II]) and five adhesion factors (K99, K88, 987P, F17, and F41). Only two gene probes, LT-IIa (9%) and F17A (53%), hybridized with the CNF2 strains. However, antibodies raised against F17 fimbriae did not agglutinate the strains hybridizing with the F17A probe. In contrast, all except one of these strains adhered to calf villi. Interestingly, these two properties, F17A positivity and adherence to calf villi, were the only ones expressed by the K-12 strains carrying different Vir plasmids. In conclusion, this study confirmed that CNF2-producing strains are unrelated to previously described toxigenic E. coli strains and also demonstrated that in half of the strains the production of CNF2 was associated with an adhesion factor genetically related to, but different from, F17, which is more than likely encoded by Vir plasmids.