Potential malignancy of rectal villous adenomas is referred as varying from 20 to 30%; an appropriate surgical excision is required in order to insure an effective cancer prophylaxis and to improve the accuracy of the pathologic assessment. The Authors review their series concerning 15 patients with one or more polyps of villous type, located at the lower third of the rectum and with precise indications for transanal excision. In 13 cases histology demonstrated the presence of an adenoma with different grade of dysplasia, which simply entered a follow-up together with a case of an adenoma with carcinoma in situ. The latter, because of the presence of invasive carcinoma, underwent radical surgery. No postoperative morbidity was observed. Recurrence rate was 8%. After an accurate review of the Literature, a radical management of the rectal villous tumour performed on routine basis seems unjustified. The Authors suggest the indication for a modern proceeding.