Villes africaines et santé : repères et enjeux

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Villes africaines et santé : repères et enjeux

Authors
  • Gérard Salem
  • Florence Fournet
Keywords

Abstract

Villes africaines et santé : repères et enjeux Bull Soc Pathol Exot, 2003, 96, 3, 145-148 145 Introduction La croissance urbaine dans les pays du Sud est particuliè-rement rapide, notamment en Afrique noire où, depuis le temps lointain des villes des routes transsahariennes et du Royaume du Ghana, le continent était resté à l’écart du phé- nomène d’urbanisation que connaissaient l’Amérique Latine et l’Asie. Sur le continent africain, le phénomène est récent, brutal et massif. Si les villes africaines ont connu pendant plusieurs décennies des taux de croissance démographique supérieurs à 5 %, moi- tié par croissance naturelle, moitié par croît migratoire, on Villes africaines et santé : repères et enjeux. Summary: Towns and health in Africa: references and stakes. Urbanization is a fairly recent phenomenon. Thus during the 19th century, only 5% of the population was living in town. However it is more and more important as urban population has been multiplied by 15 since 1900. In Africa, this evolution is still more recent and the continent remains poorly urbanized. But the rate of urbanization is the fastest in the world and demographic forecasts indicate that by 2025, more than 50% of the African population will live in towns. Consequences of urbanization on human development are not well known. Concepts of demographic and epidemiological transitions were widely used for health. Health transition is another concept, including cul - tural, social and behavioural determining factors as well as ways of caring and being cared for. These pro - cesses account for the reduction of infectious diseases through a fall of mortality and birth rates and the emergence of non-transmissible diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancers, mental diseases… Although health situation is depicted as better in towns (better immunization, health care offer, better access to health care…), mortality and morbidity patterns seem to change more quickly in towns than in rural areas. Howe - ver this is

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