Laryngeal amyloidosis is a rare pathology (0.5-1% of all benign laryngeal newgrowths). Five patients with local laryngeal and tracheal amyloidosis were successfully diagnosed and treated endoscopically in the endoscopic department of the P.A. Herzen Moscow Research Cancer Institute in 1987-2007. Videoendolaryngeal operations were performed with application of Nd:YAG laser, argon-plasma coagulation and their combination. The patients were followed up for 15 years maximum. Two most interesting cases of primary local laryngeal amyloidosis with involvement of the upper third of the trachea are presented. Foreign and domestic literature data on diagnosis and treatment of respiratory amyloidosis are reviewed.