Pulmonary segmentectomy implies the removal of one or more anatomic units of the lung. It requires dissection of the segmental bronchus and artery and identification of the intersegmental vein, which should be respected. Benign lesions, solitary pulmonary nodules, pulmonary adenocarcinoma in situ and T1a lung cancer are possible indications. The VATS approach for segmentectomies is technically challenging and differs slightly from the conventional open one. Its combination of minimal invasiveness with a maximum of lung parenchyma preservation provides a surgical treatment option for NSCLC patients with little pulmonary reserve. Data on the oncologic outcome after VATS segmentectomy are inconclusive as yet.