Recent guidelines recommend screening for patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease who have three or more additional risk factors for Barrett's esophagus (BE). Failure to screen high-risk individuals represents a missed opportunity in esophageal adenocarcinoma prevention and early detection. We aimed to determine the frequency of upper endoscopy and prevalence of BE and esophageal cancer in a cohort of United States veterans who possessed four or more risk factors for BE. All patients at VA New York Harbor Healthcare System with at least four risk factors for BE between 2012 and 2017 were identified. Procedure records were reviewed for upper endoscopies performed between January 2012 and December 2019. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with undergoing endoscopy and factors associated with BE and esophageal cancer. 4505 patients with at least four risk factors for BE were included. 828 patients (18.4%) underwent upper endoscopy, of which 42 (5.1%) were diagnosed with BE and 11 (1.3%) with esophageal cancer (10 adenocarcinoma; 1 squamous cell carcinoma). Among individuals who underwent upper endoscopy, risk factors associated with undergoing endoscopy included obesity (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.41-2.30; P < 0.001) and chronic reflux (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 3.04-4.90; P < 0.001). There were no individual risk factors associated with BE or BE/esophageal cancer. In this retrospective analysis of patients with 4 or more risk factors for BE, fewer than one-fifth of patients underwent upper endoscopy, supporting the need for efforts aimed at improving BE screening rates. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus 2023.