During the last decade, two new treatment modalities for osteoporotic vertebral fractures have gained more interest: percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The techniques and the short-term clinical results and complications have been presented but there is no scientific evidence-based information regarding the efficacy of the procedures, such as randomized controlled trials (RCT). Instead, we have to rely on prospective and retrospective uncontrolled short-term observational studies and case-control studies. These studies have shown consistently that the short-term results after the procedures are favorable as regards both pain relief and functional status. It is currently unknown, however, whether a vertebroplasty or a kyphoplasty gives a better outcome than nonoperative treatment, and whether the long-term results are as favorable as the short-term results.