In conscious newborns, the ventilatory response to hypoxia is characterized by precocious hyperventilation followed by tardive hypoventilation, the latter disappearing with age. The hypoventilation could be mainly related to a weak peripheral drive and to the persistence of the diaphragmatic activity during expiration. Also, a decrease in metabolic rate and body temperature interferes with the response. The hyperventilation in response to hypercapnia increases as maturation proceeds and the maturation of the peripheral chemoreceptors contribute to this effect, as during hypoxia. The responses to both stimuli depend on many factors such as sleep state, anesthesia or ambient temperature.